话说天葬师

2007-6-1 11:01:51 AM
原文来自Tibet Geographic Magazine,自己翻译了一下并请朋友修正,其中人名没有翻译,有错误的地方请大家指正。

Celestial Burial Masters
天葬师


Celestial burial is worshipped in Tibet as the highest pursuit of life.
天葬在西藏是最崇高最神圣的葬礼。

Of three elements indispensable for celestial burial, celestial rock (also known as altar), cinereous vultures, and masters of celestial burial, elestial burial masters are the most mysteriously important.
天葬有三样不可缺少的元素,天葬台(即祭坛),秃鹫和天葬师,其中天葬师是最神秘和重要的。

Rituals
仪式


Upon invitation from relatives of the dead, the celestial burial master goes to investigate how the dead died. According to Tibetan customs, those who are cut to death, shot to death or die of poison or contagious diseases are not allowed to be celestially buried.
收到死者亲属邀请后,天葬师会去了解死者的死因。按藏族的风俗,凡是死于刀枪、毒药或传染病的人都不能天葬。

The celestial burial master cleans the body of the dead and ties it into the form of an embryo (with hands meeting in front of the chest and sitting on folded legs) to be placed on the celestial rock.
天葬师除掉死者身上的衣物并将身体蜷曲成初生婴儿状(双手交叉在胸前,蜷腿合成坐的姿势)送到天葬台。

On the burial day, the master arrives at four in the morning, and draws two white flour lines outside the house of the dead, lines which are one meter apart. He carries the body on his back and walks in-between the lines. This means this would not disturb those alive.
葬礼那天,天葬师会在早上四点钟到达,在死者房子外用青稞粉画两条白线,两条线相隔一米。他背着尸体在两条线之间走。这样做的意思是不打扰活着的人。

The sun does not appear on the eastern horizon when the body is carried to the celestial burial ground. The master lights aromatic plants for smoke, smoke used as a signal to cinereous vultures, and cut the body into pieces. The master does not have the final say as to which celestial ground is used. It is entirely the choice of relatives of the dead. According to Tibetan customs, people of the same family should not use the same celestial burial ground when dead in 12 years.
尸体被带到天葬台的时候太阳还没升出东方的地平线。天葬师煨桑生烟,烟是用来给秃鹫信号,然后切割尸体。天葬师不能选择使用哪个天葬场,这全由死者的亲属选择。依照藏族习俗,同一个家庭的成员在12年内不能使用同一个天葬场。


If the celestial burial ground is in faraway place, the master has to carry the body to the site at one o\'clock at night. The celestial burial ground is generally located on a mountain slope, and the master has to carry the body there without rest halfway. If the master has disciples, he can have one of them to carry body in his place.
如果天葬场在一个很远的地方,天葬师则要半夜一点把尸体带到那。天葬场一般设在山坡上,天葬师在搬运尸体的路上不能休息。如果天葬师有徒弟,他可以让徒弟中的一个来搬运尸体。

As one dies of varied diseases, some celestial burial master would wear white uniform but very few of them wear gloves. "The soul of the dead has just left its carrier and it watches while I work," celestial burial masters often say, adding that it is their duty to do a good job of their carriers so that their souls could leave in peace.
如果一个人死于疾病,一般天葬师会穿上白色的工作服但很少戴手套,“死者的灵魂会离开身体,看着我工作”,天葬师常这样说,做好天葬是他们的职责,这样死者的灵魂才能安心地离开。


Professional and Amateur Masters
专业和业余的天葬师


There are two kinds of people who work as professional celestial burial masters-monks and monks who, however, have resumed secular life. Zhigung Celestial Burial Ground has masters who are monks with Zhigungti Monastery of the Garyu Sect. When one celestial burial master becomes old, the monastery will arrange two young men to learn skills indispensable for celestial burial rituals. Once one is designated to be a professional celestial burial master, he needs only to recite one sutra to redeem the sins of the dead, and will not be required to learn to recite other sutras and calendaring other monks have to learn. Most of the professional celestial burial masters are found mainly in Lhasa, Xigaze and Shannan.
从事专业天葬师的有两种人——喇嘛和还俗了的喇嘛。直贡天葬场有来自噶举派直贡替寺的喇嘛天葬师。当天葬师老了,寺庙会安排两个年青人来学习天葬。当他们中的一个被指定为专业天葬师,他要背诵用来超度死者的经文,而不需要学习别的喇嘛需要学习的经文和历法。大多数的专业天葬师在拉萨、日喀则和山南地区。

In addition to Zhigung Celestial Burial Ground with celestial burial masters designated by Zhigungti Monastery, other masters do the job for three reasons. The first is for a master to pass the job to his son....
除了直贡天葬场是由直贡替寺指派之外,其它天葬师从事这个职业有三个原因。第一种是子承父业…

The second is for the master to do the work to eke out a living. Gangzhub from Meizhogkungka was born into?serf’s family. His parents died when he was young. At 14 he became a celestial burial worker and had since been working in the field for 62 years. He retired when he was 76 years old. The third are monks who, however, have resumed secular life. Cewang? was tonsured to a monastery when he was 12 years old. He was sent to work in a hospital four years later.
第二种是为了糊口。Gangzhub(人名)出生在一个叫墨竹工卡的一个农奴家庭,从小父母离世, 14岁开始做天葬师整整62年,直到他76岁退休。第三种是还俗的喇嘛。Cewang在12岁时在一家寺庙出家,四年后他被送到一家医院工作。

Unable to stand ill-treatment there, he fled but was soon brought back to the monastery that forced him to resume secular life. With wolf at the door, he became a celestial burial master.
他不堪忍受医院的疾病,逃走后很快又被送回寺庙,被迫还俗。为了生存,他成了一名天葬师。

Life of Masters
天葬师的生活


Life of Masters Raodain, a celestial burial master in Nyangrain Township of, joined the PLA in the early 1960s. When he was demobilized later, he found his family was starving. His parents had died and his sisters and brothers needed to be fed. He had no way out but to work as a celestial burial master. Now he has two daughters who have all got married.
Raodain, 娘惹镇的天葬师, 60年代初加入解放军。退伍后,他发现家里人正在挨饿,父母已经去世,兄弟姐妹需要吃饭。除了做天葬师外他找不到其它办法。现在他有两个女儿并都已出嫁。

When he was 50 years old, he adopted a little girl who is three years now.Raodain is a kind man ready to help the poor. When one woman died, Raodain helped her poverty-stricken husband with the burial work. Raodain is not the only one of his kind. Many other celestial burial masters charge nothing from the poor. When beggars die, they often pay for their burial.
50岁那年他收养了一个女孩,现在已经三岁了。Raodain是一个乐于帮忙穷人的好人。当一个女人去世,他帮助她穷困的丈夫,给她天葬。Raodain不是唯一的一个好人,很多天葬师不收穷人的钱。当一个乞丐去世,他们常为其天葬。

"We believe we would go to the paradise so long as we could do a good job," Gangzhub, a senior celestial burial master, said.
“我们相信现在好好做天葬,死后我们就能上天堂。”年老的天葬师Gangzhub说。


When compared with others, the celestial burial masters make more money. The family of the dead often has to give 300-3,000 Yuan to the master they invite to handle the celestial burial matters. A noted celestial burial master would make up to 30,000 Yuan a month.
和其它工作相比,天葬师能赚更多的钱。死者的家人一般一次葬礼付给天葬师300到3000元。一个有名气的天葬师一个月能收入近三万元。

However, many do not lead a happy life, largely because of low social status. In the eyes of many Tibetans, the celestial burial masters emerge from the dead and are filled with viruses and ghosts. Many try not to get close to them. As a result, many celestial burial masters have no friends.
虽然这样,很多天葬师的人生还是很不快乐,主要因为他们的社会低位很低。在很多藏族人眼里,天葬师伴随着死亡,疾病和鬼魂,尽量远离他们。因此很多天葬师没有朋友。

Most of the celestial burial masters are alcoholic. Very often they are found to be on all fours. When they have quarrels with others, very few try to get reasons from them. This, however, does not mean respect for them!
大部分天葬师都是酒鬼。他们常常烂醉如泥地被发现。他们跟其他人报怨的时候,很少有人会责怪他们,但这并不代表他们受尊重!

Celestial burial masters often have to marry daughters of their counterparts or daughters of blacksmiths, butchers and jewelry makers who were also deemed mean people. Others will not easily allow their sons to marry daughters of celestial burial masters. In the Tibetan-inhabited areas, the customs are not for the celestial burial masters and their relatives to enjoy celestial burial. Legend has it that water burial prevails in a village in Nyimo.
天葬师的女儿通常是嫁给同行,或是铁匠、屠夫、珠宝匠等从事低等职业的人。很少有人会让他们的儿子娶天葬师的女儿。藏区的风俗是天葬师和他的亲戚死后都不能马上举行天葬仪式,传说在尼木的村子是先对他们进行水葬。

When asked why, the villagers often fly into a rage stating that if celestial burial is followed, vultures would not come."When one celestial burial master in the village died some 20 years ago, celestial burial ritual was followed for his body," they said.
问起原因,村民们激动地说如果举行天葬,秃鹫们都不会来。但是当天葬师死去20年后,可以对他的身体再进行天葬仪式。他们说。


"There were many vultures then. However, they never come right after that as the celestial burial ritual held by the daughter of that master offended vultures." As a matter of fact, when one dies, there should be people who help handle the dead.
“那时会来很多秃鹰,在天葬师的女儿主持完仪式前需要先赶走它们。” 事实上,任何一个人死后也是需要有人来为他处理后事的。

Celestial burial masters constitute an important part of the work. However, they feel sorry for the public view.
天葬师是天葬很重要的一个环节,可天葬师却觉得得不到公众的尊重。

"We are also human beings," said Cewang, a celestial burial master.
“我们也是人啊”,天葬师Cewang说。

"We need understanding and social respect ".
“我们需要社会的理解和尊重”。

"In order to make friends, some of us have to 'buy' friend by offering them meat and wine. They have no savings and have to live on relief when old.
“为了交朋友,我们中的一些人用肉和酒来‘买’朋友。他们没有储蓄,老了也得不到救济。”

"We hope our children would not do the work when they grow up."
“我们希望我们的孩子长大后不要从事这个职业。”

According to old celestial burial masters, their fate in the pre-peaceful-liberation days was the worst.
按老天葬师的说法,和平解放前他们的命运最苦。

"We had to bypass others when walking in the street," they? said.
“上街我们要避开别人走” 他说。

Following the peaceful liberation of Tibet, celestial burial work began to be put unified management by the local ethnic religious administration. there are 12 licensed celestial burial masters who went to the Ethnic Religious Administration for meeting on a regular basis. The Administration is charged of explaining State policies for freedom of religious belief to them and assisting them in solving difficulties in life.
和平解放后,天葬由地方民族宗教局统一管理。有12个经过符合民族宗教局规定的在册天葬师。管理部门向他们热情解释国家宗教信仰自由的政策并帮助他们解决生活上的困难。
Comments [6] | TrackBack[0] | 5319 views | TrackBack
刘冬 - 6/1/2007 11:15:40 AM
1
小伙,你老人家整那么多洋文干嘛啊,欺负偶们这些爱国人士嘛。
poorfish - 6/1/2007 11:31:44 AM
2
资料备份,呵
220.205.173.* - 6/22/2007 7:09:27 PM
3
你的洋文行,我的洋文不过关。
219.148.48.* - 10/28/2007 2:33:25 PM
4
可以翻译成中文版的吗 我需要!!!!谢谢
poorfish - 10/29/2007 11:14:17 AM
5
我可以试一下,就当练习好了
poorfish - 11/16/2007 9:46:52 PM
6
丢了好多天忘记这事儿了,现在搞定

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